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ormer region of Scotland (1975-96) which consisted of four districts and was replaced in 1996 by the Scottish Borders unitary authority. The districts of Tweeddale, Ettrick and Lauderdale, Berwickshire, and Roxburgh made up the Borders region. The region was created in 1975 with lands from the five counties of Midlothian, Peeblesshire, Selkirkshire, Roxburghshire, and Berwickshire. 

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Local Links Scottish Borders Council

owns and cities Galashiels, Hawick, Jedburgh, Kelso, Newtown St Boswells (administrative headquarters), Peebles, Selkirk
rea 4,733 sq km / 1,827 sq miles
opulation 105,300 (1996)
opography Source of the River TweedMuch of the west part of the area is upland (Lammermuir, Moorfoot and Pentland Hills) ; Broad Law (840 m / 2,756 ft), near Tweedsmuir, is the highest point. The principal river, the Tweed, traverses the region west - east ; its tributaries include the River Teviot. The largest loch is St Mary's, and the only substantial area of low - lying agricultural land is the Merse in the southeast, near the English border. The coast is generally precipitous
ommerce Industries: Electronics, timber, knitwear, tweed
Agriculture: Sheep and cattle ; cereals and root crops ; fishing
amous people Mungo Park, James Hogg (Scottish poet ` the Ettrick Shepherd ´ ), Walter Scott
ttractions Walter Scott's home at Abbotsford ; Field Marshal Haig and Walter Scott buried at Dryburgh Abbey ; Melrose Abbey (12th century)

The area has been occupied since early hunter - gatherers moved into Scotland ; early monuments include many hill - forts, of which Eildon Hill North, near Melrose, is the most impressive.
There are medieval abbeys at Melrose, Jedburgh, Dryburgh, and Kelso. A series of stone - built castles, including Hermitage in Liddesdale ( c. 13th century), testify to the insecurity of the border area well into the 16th century. Later buildings include Abbotsford, created by Walter Scott (1822), and Floors Castle, built by William Adam (1721 - 25) and altered by Playfair in the 1840s.
The Raid of the Redeswire (1575), an English defeat at the hands of Jedburgh's provost and townspeople, was the last major engagement of this kind. At Philiphaugh on Yarrow Water, the Covenanter General Leslie defeated the Marquis of Montrose in 1645.

There are 88 Sites of Special Scientific Interest, three National Nature Reserves, three Ramsars (wetland sites), three Special Protection Areas, and two National Scenic Areas.

Galashiels
Mill town and former burgh in Scottish Borders unitary authority, Scotland, on the Gala Water, 52 km / 33 mi southeast of Edinburgh ; population (1991) 13,800. A major producer of Scottish tweeds, its Scottish College of Textiles is the headquarters of Scotland's tweed manufacturing industry.
Abbotsford , the residence of the novelist and poet Walter Scott, lies to the southeast.

Hawick
Town and former burgh in Scottish Borders unitary authority, Scotland, bounded by the rivers Teviot and Slitrig, 84 km/52 mi southeast of Edinburgh; population (1991) 15,800. The manufacture of woollens is long established; hosiery was being produced in 1771 and tweed in about 1820. The Common Riding, a traditional fair and festival, is held annually in the town. Hawick's 12th-century castle was demolished by the English in 1570. Its motte, an artificial earthen mound, is the only remaining structure.

Jedburgh
Small town in the Scottish Borders unitary authority, Scotland, on Jed Water, 77 km/48 mi south of Edinburgh; population (1991) 4,100. It has the remains of a 12th-century abbey. Jedburgh is a woollen manufacturing centre. The town's medieval castle was destroyed in 1409, and a prison built on its site in 1823. The fortified town house where Mary Queen of Scots stayed in 1566 is now a museum. The abbey was originally a church attached to an Augustinian priory founded by David I. The Spread Eagle is reputed to be the oldest hotel in Scotland and the fourth oldest in the British Isles. Jedburgh has associations with Charles Edward Stuart, and with the poet Robert Burns. The town is more popularly known locally as either Jethart or Jeddart. `Jeddart Justice´ means to hang a person first, and try them afterwards. 

Kelso
Market town and former burgh in Scottish Borders unitary authority, Scotland, situated at the confluence of the rivers Tweed and Teviot, 68 km/42 mi southeast of Edinburgh; population (1991) 6,000. Its chief industries are iron founding, the manufacture of manures and oil cake, and agricultural support services. A five-arched bridge, built in 1803, crosses the Tweed here, and the ruins of Kelso Abbey, founded in 1128, lie off the market square. In 1545 the abbey's 112 inhabitants were killed during an attack by Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford (1506-52). The poet and novelist Walter Scott was a pupil at the old grammar school in 1783; he described Kelso as the most beautiful town in Scotland.

Peebles
Wool town and former royal burgh in Scottish Borders unitary authority, Scotland, situated at the confluence of the rivers Eddleston and Tweed, 37 km/23 mi south of Edinburgh; population (1991) 7,100. Favoured by Scottish royalty, Peebles probably received its charter in 1367 from Alexander III, and later became the capital of the former county of Peeblesshire. The massive ruined keep of the 14th- century Neidpath Castle lies about 2 km/1 mi to the west. 

Selkirk
Mill town and former royal burgh in Scottish Borders unitary authority, Scotland, situated on the River Ettrick, 61 km/38 mi southeast of Edinburgh; population (1991) 5,900. Tweed manufacturing is the principal industry. The town was the county capital of former Selkirkshire.