|ounty of Northeast England, created in 1974 from most of the North
Riding and parts of the East and West Ridings of Yorkshire. Yorkshire - The former county
was divided administratively into North, East, and West Ridings, but reorganised to form a
number of new counties in 1974: the major part of Cleveland and Humberside, North
Yorkshire, South Yorkshire, and West Yorkshire. Small outlying areas also went to Durham,
Cumbria, Lancashire, and Greater Manchester. In 1996 Cleveland and Humberside were
abolished, and a number of unitary authorities were created to replace them.
North Yorkshire County Council - East Riding of
Yorkshire Council -City of York
Council - Kingston-upon-Hull City
Council - Harrogate Borough
Council - Scarborough Borough
|owns and cities
||Northallerton (administrative headquarters); resorts: Harrogate,
on the River Nidd, 6 km / 4 miles Northeast of Harrogate, has a diverse range of service
sector and light industries, including the manufacture of circuit boards, plastic products
(double glazing), stainless steel goods, hi-fi speakers, and flags and bunting.There is an
outstanding railway viaduct, and the remains of a castle first established around 1070.
Most of the castle ruins date from the 14th century, and there is a well-preserved
To the south of the town is a `dropping well´ where the water has petrifying
qualities, immersed items becoming coated with calcium carbonate. Nearby is the cave where
the prophet Mother Shipton is said to have lived. St Robert's Cave, or Eugene Aram's Cave,
is where the convicted murderer Eugene Aram is said to have hidden the corpse of Daniel
Clark, a local shoemaker, in 1745. The chapel of Our Lady in the Crag lies near St
||8,037 sq. km / 3,102 sq. miles
largest county is home to the rivers, Derwent, Esk and the Ouse. North Yorkshire has a
wide and varied landscape including part of the Pennines; the Vale of York (a vast plain);
the Cleveland Hills; North Yorkshire Moors, which form a national park (within which is
Fylingdales radar station to give early warning - 4 minutes - of nuclear attack)
Yorkshire is divided into eight districts. The Pennines are in the west part of the
county. There are several beautiful dales, which together constitute the Yorkshire Dales
National Park, the principal ones being Swaledale, Wensleydale, Nidderdale, Airedale, and
relief of the east part of the county is varied. To the Northeast are the Cleveland Hills
and the valley of the River Esk, which flows to the North Sea; south of Esk lies
Fylingdales Moor, the Hambleton Hills, and the North Yorkshire Moors. From these moors,
several valleys, such as Bilsdale and Farndale, run down to the Vale of Pickering, through
which runs the River Derwent, which flows Southwest from near the coast to join the Ouse
between Selby and Goole. The county extends south of the Vale of Pickering to the
Yorkshire Wolds (an area of moorland). The coast from Runswick Bay in the north to Filey
Bay in the south is varied; the stretch between Whitby and Scarborough, with its high
cliffs, is especially attractive.
cereals, dairy products (Vale of York, Pickering); wool and meat from sheep (North York
Industries: coal, footwear, clothing, vehicles, plastics, foodstuffs, high technology
industries, light industry
||Alcuin, York was the birthplace of the conspirator Guy Fawkes, the poet W
H Auden, the painter William Etty, and the sculptor John Flaxman. Dick Turpin, the
highwayman, was hanged in York in 1739.
||York is famous for the magnificent Minster and the cobbled shopping street
'Shambles' but there are numerous other gems in this city, not least, the very pleasant
walk along the city walls which give fine views of the Minster.
Burton Agnes is one of the prettiest villages in the Yorkshire Wolds and is home to the
magnificent Burton Agnes Hall.
The superb natural features of Gordale Scar - a 300 foot ravine with waterfalls, Gaping
Gill - the largest limestone cave in Britain and Malham Cove - a 240 foot high natural
amphitheatre which water once flowed over.
With its pleasant coastline, National Parks, and rural
landscapes, North Yorkshire is an important centre for tourism. Robin Hood's Bay between
Scarborough and Whitby. It is an example of a large wave-cut platform. The village is
surrounded by moorland.
In addition to the coastal resorts at Scarborough and Whitby, several smaller places attract tourists.
Visitors come to the numerous small market towns and villages within the two National
Parks, and to nearby towns, particularly Richmond, Ripon, Harrogate, and Pickering.
Rievaulx Abbey; Yorkshire Dales National Park (including Swaledale, Wensleydale, and
Bolton Abbey in Wharfedale); Fountains Abbey near Ripon, with Studley Royal Gardens (a
World Heritage site); Castle Howard, designed by Vanbrugh, has Britain's largest
collection of 18th-20th-century costume; largest accessible cavern in Britain, the
Battlefield Chamber, Ingleton
Hawes Market town on the
River Ure, 40 km / 25 miles Northwest of Skipton is a centre for fell climbing and
walking, especially on the Pennine Way, and the site of a livestock market. Wensleydale
cheese is made locally.
Yorkshire came under the rule of Harold of England in 1066 after the Battle of Stamford
Bridge. Large areas were devastated by the Normans. Since then the county has been the
scene of many battles. During the Wars of the Roses one of the bloodiest battles ever to
have been fought in Britain took place at Towton Field. During the Civil War the county
was divided, and the principal battle was fought at Marston Moor, where the Royalists were
defeated. Important monuments in the county include the great Iron Age camp at Stanwix,
and the Roman town at Aldborough.
Whitby on the North
Sea coast, at the mouth of the River Esk, is a busy fishing harbour particularly
herring fishing. There are remains of a 13th-century abbey. Captain James Cook served his
apprenticeship in Whitby and he sailed from here on his voyage to the Pacific Ocean in
Whitby was an important whaling centre and shipbuilding town in the 18th and 19th
centuries. In 664 the Synod of Whitby, which affected the course of Christianity in
England, was held there. The abbey was built on the site of a Saxon foundation established
in 657 by St Hilda and destroyed by the Danes in 867. A Benedictine abbey was established
in 1078, and the present ruins, reached from the town by 199 steps, date from 1220.
Caedmon, the earliest-known English Christian poet, worked in the abbey in the 7th
century. Near the abbey ruins stands the partly Norman parish church of St Mary. Captain
Cook's ship Resolution was built in Whitby, and the Captain Cook Memorial Museum
commemorates the life of the explorer.
The Craven Fault, a displacement of limestone, forms two amphitheatres of rock, Malham
Cove and Gordale Scar, 2 km / 1 miles from the village of Malham. The cliffs of Malham
Cove are nearly 100 m / 328 ft high; the River Aire rises at their foot. Malham
Tarn, north of the cove, is an upland lake
many castles the best known are Richmond, Bolton, Skipton, Knaresborough,
and Scarborough. Middleham Castle was a residence of Warwick `The King Maker´. Of the
ecclesiastical remains the most important are the Cistercian abbeys of Fountains,
Rievaulx, and Jervaulx; the Augustinian priories of Bolton and Kirkham; and the
Premonstratensian House at Easby. There were Benedictine foundations at Selby and Whitby.
Minster (13th century) is an outstanding example of Gothic church architecture. The town
is an agricultural centre with a flourishing cattle market and bakery, and the Beverley
race course. Leather tanning, shipbuilding, manufacture of car accessories, aircraft
assembly, industrial plastics, and metal plating are the chief industries. St Mary's
parish church in Beverley dates from the 13th century. There is an ancient grammar school
in the town. The Minster contains the tomb of the Percy family (about 1350), with fine
The City of York is
administrative headquarters of York unitary authority. It sits on the River Ouse It was
the administrative headquarters of the county of North Yorkshire until 1996. Industries
include tourism and the manufacture of scientific instruments, sugar, chocolate, and
glass. Founded in AD 71 as the Roman provincial capital Eboracum, York retains many of its
medieval streets and buildings and much of its 14th-century city wall; the Gothic York
Minster, England's largest medieval cathedral, includes fine 15th-century stained glass. The city is visited by some
3 million tourists a year. The south transept of York Minster has been restored following
severe damage caused by a fire in 1984. Four gates or `bars´ of the city wall survive, as
well as the medieval streets including the Shambles. The Jorvik Viking Centre contains
wooden remains of Viking houses. Other features include the Theatre Royal, site of a
theatre since 1765; the Castle Museum; the National Railway Museum; and York University
Excavations of the Roman city have revealed the fortress, baths, and temples to Serapis
and Mithras. The Roman missionary Paulinus became the first archbishop of York in 633. In
867 it became the Viking settlement of Jorvik. During the Middle Ages it was important in
the wool trade. An active Quaker element in the 18th and 19th centuries included the
Rowntree family, which founded a chocolate factory. In the 19th century it developed as a
It is thought that a wooden chapel was erected on the site of the present Minster in 627
for the baptism of King Edwin of Northumbria. A Norman structure was begun in about 1080,
but the oldest surviving part of the present building dates from about 1220, and the
central tower was completed in about 1480. The cathedral's fine stained-glass windows
include the `Five Sisters´ in the north transept, and the East Window dating from 1405,
thought to be the world's largest medieval stained-glass window. The octagonal Chapter
House, dating from 1260 to 1300, has no central supporting column. The choir screen,
dating from the late 15th century, depicts kings of England from William I to Henry VI.
York also has many spectacular churches including All Saints' Church which is the only
church in York to have a lantern tower. The last to be built before the Reformation, St
Michael-le-Belfry (1535), has in its register an entry recording the baptism in 1570 of
Guy Fawkes, the conspirator in the Gunpowder Plot. St Peter's School is one of the oldest
private schools in England, and has claims to link it with the school of St Peter founded
in 627. The medieval Guildhall, built in 1448, was destroyed by bombing in 1942, but was
restored to its former state in 1960. Three other guildhalls remain.
The city walls, built on earlier foundations, extend for 4.4 km / 2.7 miles, and date
mainly from the 14th century, although the gates include Norman work. The four main
gateways or `bars´ are Walmgate Bar, Bootham Bar, Monk Bar, and Mickelgate Bar. Walmgate
retains its barbican, whilst Bootham and Monk each has its portcullis. Micklegate was the
chief of the four gates and on it was impaled the head Richard of York in 1460.
The basement of the Yorkshire Museum incorporates the chapter house and fireplace of the
Benedictine St Mary's Abbey (founded about 1080). In the gardens of the museum are more
remains of the Abbey, including the ruins of the church (1259) and gatehouse. Clifford's Tower
(1245-1262) is all that remains of York Castle. It was built to replace the wooden tower
built by William the Conqueror which was destroyed in 1190 when, during anti-Jewish riots
in the city, 150 members of the Jewish population were put there and took their own lives
by setting fire to the tower rather than fall into the hands of the mob. The network of
narrow medieval streets in the centre of York includes Stonegate, and the Shambles, the
street of the butchers. The Shambles includes the house of Margaret Clitherow who was
martyred in 1586 after being accused of providing a refuge for Jesuit priests; the house
has been restored by Catholics of York as a shrine.
The Yorkshire Museum contains fine archaeological, natural history, and geological
collections. There is a richly stocked Roman gallery as well as Anglo-Saxon and Viking
relics. The City Art Gallery contains a large collection of European paintings, including
the Lycett Green collection of old masters, which provides a continuous series of examples
of the development of European art. The Castle Museum, occupying two former prison
buildings built in the 18th
century, is a folk museum which includes reconstructed 19th-century streets. The Jorvik
Viking Centre, opened after excavations at Coppergate (1976-81), depicts life in York in
the time of the Vikings and displays the archaeological remains discovered during the
excavations. The National Railway Museum contains a large collection of locomotives,
dating from 1829, as well as royal carriages and a replica of a section of the Channel
Howard, Yorkshire (1699-1712), designed by John Vanbrugh with the assistance of
Nicholas Hawksmoor for the Earl of Carlisle. It was the grandest country house built in
England up to this time and initiated a brief flowering of a vigorous Baroque style in
Ripley Castle dates from the 16th century, but was largely rebuilt in 1780; Oliver
Cromwell stayed there after the Battle of Marston Moor. Ripley has a 14th-century church.
built on the site of a Saxon church, includes a crypt built by St Wilfrid in 672, and fine
15th-century misericords (ledges projecting from the underside of the hinged seat of choir
stalls, for support during standing). General restoration was carried out by George
Gilbert Scott in the 19th century.
Market town on the River Ribble, dates from the 13th century. The surrounding limestone
country has many caves and gorges, including Alum Pot, Gaping Gill, and Malham Tarn. The
Settle-Carlisle railway line (182 km / 114 miles) is one of the most scenic in the UK,
passing through the Yorkshire Dales National Park and the Pennines.